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Addendum to the Presentation on Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence: Very simply, the goal of creating an intelligent computer
A landmark paper in artificial intelligence: Computing Machinery and Intelligence, A.M. Turing.
Published in Mind in 1950
The Turing Thesis, stated two similar ways:
1. There is no functional difference between brains and computers
2. Any thought process used by a human can, in principle, be programmed into a
Picture of a neuron:
Image from http://www.nbia.nf.ca/the_neuron.htm, 9/24/02
Three roads to artificial intelligence:
1. MRI Scanning
3. Bit-by-bit programming by hand
A reasonable definition of intelligence: The Turing Test
Images from www.gsi.dit.upm.es/~lssii/ pturing, 924/02
Four Highly Related Broad Themes in the Field of Artificial Intelligence
1. True understanding versus shallow tricks
2. Accurate modeling of human cognition versus “whatever works”
3. Types of thought easy for humans versus types of thought easy for computers
4. The human ability with commonsense knowledge versus the computer inability
Sample rule for MYCIN:
1. The gram stain of the organism is gramneg, and
2. The morphology of the organism is rod, and
3. The aerobicity of the organism is anaerobic
THEN there is suggestive evidence (.6 probability) that the identity of the organism is
Rule taken from Ginsberg, Essentials of Artificial Intelligence
Transcript of a conversation between Joseph Weizbaum’s Eliza program and a real teenage girl.
Eliza’s responses are in blue.
Men are all alike.
IN WHAT WAY
They're always bugging us about something or other.
CAN YOU THINK OF A SPECIFIC EXAMPLE
Well, my boyfriend made me come here.
YOUR BOYFRIEND MADE YOU COME HERE
He says that I am depressed all the time.
I AM SORRY TO HERE YOU ARE DEPRESSED
It's true that I am unhappy
DO YOU THINK COMING HERE WILL HELP YOU NOT TO BE UNHAPPY
I need help, that seems certain.
WHY DO YOU WANT HELP THAT SEEMS CERTAIN?
Perhaps I could learn to get along with my mother.
TELL ME MORE ABOUT YOUR FAMILY
My mother takes care of me.
WHO ELSE IN YOUR FAMILY TAKES CARE OF YOU
You are like my father in some ways.
WHAT RESEMBLANCE DO YOU SEE
You are not very aggressive but I think you don't want me to notice that.
WHAT MAKES YOU BELIEVE I AM NOT VERY AGGRESSIVE BUT YOU THINK I DONT
WANT YOU TO NOTICE THAT
You dont argue with me.
WHY DON'T YOU THINK I ARGUE WITH YOU
You are afraid of me.
DOES IT PLEASE YOU TO BELIEVE I AM AFRAID OF YOU
My father is afraid of everybody.
WHAT ELSE COMES TO MIND WHEN YOU THINK OF YOUR FATHER
Transcript of a conversation between SHRDLU and a person. SHDRLU’s responses are in blue.
1. pick up a red block
2. find a block which is taller than the one you are holding and put it into the box.
By "it," i assume that you mean the block which is taller than the one i am holding. OK.
3. what does the box contain?
The blue pyramid and the blue box
4. what is the pyramid supported by?
5. how many blocks are not in the box?
four of them
6. is at least one of them narrowed than the one which I told you to pick up?
yes, the red cube
7. will you please stack up both of the red blocks and either a green cube or a pyramid?
8. is there a large block behind a pyramid?
yes, three of them: a large red one, a large green cube and the blue one.
9. put a small one into the green cube which supports a pyramid
10. put the littlest pyramid on top of it
11. had you touched any pyramid before you put the green one on the little cube?
Yes, the green one
18. when did you pick it up?
while i was stacking up the red cube, a large red block and a large green cube
to get rid of it
20. why did you do that?
to clear off the red cube
21. why did you clear off that cube?
to put it on a large green cube
22. why did you do that?
to stack the red cube, a large block, and a large green cube
23. why did you do that?
because you asked me to
Conversation transcripts taken from Some Fascinating Exhibits,
Other sources used:
Cope, David. Virtual Music
Ginsberg, Matt, Essentials of Artificial Intelligence
Hofstadter, Douglas R. Godel, Escher, Bach
Hofstadter, Douglas R. Fluid Concepts and Creative Analogies
Kutzweil, Ray. The Age of Intelligent Machines
Russel, Stuart and Norvig, Peter. Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach